Wednesday, 31 October 2012

6 DAYS TO GO.


I thought that this article was really interesting. It gives a different way of looking at the election from a Briton's view. I am following the election, even though I am not an American citizen and the result will have no effect on me, but, I still find myself fascinated, and wonder, why? This article looks at that 'why?' and tries to summarise a little more how we are involved.


Whether Barack Obama or Mitt Romney wins next week, this election is simply none of our business

It's unimaginable that Americans would invest as much emotion and energy in our elections as we do in theirs. Why do we delude ourselves that they care?


Many political activists from across the spectrum in the UK are this month in the United States campaigning for one candidate or another. This is an integral, if bizarre, part of modern political activism. British individuals, with no vote, who pay no US tax, do not live in the US, and are not subject to American laws, are knocking on American doors lobbying Americans to vote for their choice of candidate.

It’s easy to see why Brits – or the British political class – are so infatuated with American politics. It has the drama, schmaltz and showbiz that British elections lack. Although we famously don’t like it when British politicians try to emulate the American political style, we love to follow the ins and outs of American elections on a minute level.
Bias
Recent polling in several European countries reflects a strong bias toward one candidate in particular. According to a Gallup International poll, 97% of Germans, 96% of the Irish, and 95% of the French approve of President Obama. That compares to Obama’s 44% approval in the US. Whose opinion matters more – the people of America, who experience life in their country in a way only they can, and who are subject to American laws and American taxes? Or the Germans, French and Brits, whose opinions are formed mainly from their armchairs?

The president is simply a figurehead of a very pervasive culture. America’s influence comes from the innovation of its entrepreneurs, its film, music, lifestyle, values and the products it exports. The world around us is an American creation; think of any important element of modern life – the brands, foods and technologies we use, the culture we enjoy – and you’ll see where America’s power truly lies.

Main Street, not Marseille
The 2012 election could produce a win for either Romney or Obama. It is close in a way I can’t remember. Come January 21, President Romney or President Obama will face the same geopolitical questions: will the West allow Iran to go nuclear? Will Israel-Palestine ever be settled? Should American assets be used to stop the bloodshed in Syria? Come January 21, President Romney or President Obama will face the same burning desire to be isolationist and focus on re-inflating the American domestic economy.

The foreign policy debate – the final of the three debates – highlighted the very slight foreign policy difference between the candidates. It also previeweda coming insularity caused by the great economic slump. Come January 21, do you really think the man on the street in Middlesbrough, Marseille or Milan will notice the difference? I suspect not. 

Source: ndependent

OCTOBER SURPRISE?

'October Surprise' is Political Jargon for a news event which happens ironically in October, which could determine the upcoming US Presidential Election. The election normally takes place within the first 8 days of November.

It's historic that this happens election after election, and has come to light again with the very recent Hurricane Sandy which has caused major damage, injuries and deaths on the East Coast. Blackouts, power surges, deaths and injuries, were seen in the past couple of days in New York and New Jersey and the surrounding areas. It has been compared to Hurricane Katrina which happened before the George Bush elections.


Flooding in Manhattan near Brooklyn Bridge.


Water rushing into a subway tube station.
Source: telegraph



Wall Street.


Battery Park Tunnel.
Source: telegraph

Source: bbc

This shows the predicted areas that the storm will effect.

Impact on US, in figures
40+ people killed
8 million left without power
139 mph - highest gust of wind - Mt Washington, New Hampshire
12.55 in (31.88cm) rainfall, Easton, Maryland
13.88 feet (4.23m) storm surge, Lower Manhattan
7,000 reports of trees down in NY City
29 hospitals lost power in New Jersey
Sources: New York Times, AP

President Barack Obama has called off his current election campaign to tour states which have been devastated by this natural disaster. He was due to visit emergency services, businesses and hospitals to give thanks, and help to re build. He has said that any necessary action to be taken, and money that needs to be spent will be done.

Romney however, held a conference in Ohio regarding the storm. This is a state that he needs to maintain in his favour. Both candidates are running pretty much even still, with some swing states that 
could decide who will end up winning.

Source: independent

"The storm is not over yet," Obama cautioned during a Tuesday afternoon visit to the headquarters of the Red Cross in Washington. "We're going to continue to push as hard as we can" to provide resources, he added, before emphasizing that his message to his administration is "no bureaucracy, no red tape."

The storm also calls attention to a dynamic that all incumbents face: how to balance being president while running for reelection. Rarely, if ever, has a president had to deal with such a major disaster so close to Election Day, and any misstep or move that appears politically motivated could cost Obama with voters.

For now, the president's Chicago-based reelection team is exhibiting no urgency to return him to the campaign trail. The campaign canceled two rallies in Ohio on Wednesday, and one aide said Obama's schedule is being determined by the president, along with White House advisers such as David Plouffe and Chief of Staff Jacob Lew.
This aide, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to talk frankly about internal strategy, suggested that at this point, the rallies are marginally helpful in getting supporters to vote, but that otherwise "the race is set."

In the meantime, Obama campaign manager Jim Messina sent e-mails to supporters in storm-affected states asking that they donate to the Red Cross.

Matthew Dowd, a top aide for Bush's 2004 reelection effort, said Obama has used the power of his incumbency and "done just exactly what he needs to do."

"The longer they can have him being the president and not a candidate, the better for them," Dowd said.

On Tuesday morning, Obama convened a videoconference from the Situation Room with Vice President Joe Biden, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, Federal Emergency Management Administrator W. Craig Fugate and a dozen other top advisers.

According to one White House aide, he told them: "I want everyone leaning forward on this. I don't want to hear that we didn't do something because bureaucracy got in the way."



Saturday, 27 October 2012

US PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION DIARY

Tuesday 23rd Oct: 
- Presidential debate took place
- Obama states that Romney is "reckless and wrong" on foreign policies debate
- Debate in Florida; Obama disagrees and clashes with Romney on issues such as Iraq, the Middle East or the going after al-Queda.
- Celebrities such as Katy Perry and Alexa Chung sing and perform in support of Obama
- Obama launches battleground state tour
- More campaigning for undecided voters, to go with Obama for his positive policies
Weds 24th Oct:
- Donald Trump offers Obama $5m for Obama's passport or college details, and is denied.
- Obama says that Romney shouldn't be trusted, and pleads to public
- Clint Eastwood stars in Republican TV ad.
Thurs 25th Oct:
- Colin Powell, former US Secretary of State endorsed Obama's re-election campaign.
- Obama struggles to re-capture black vote
- Romney Campaign raises $12m in 17 days in donations towards his Presidential campaign
- Sitcoms; Opinions count in programmes such as Family Guy
Friday 26th Oct:
- Barack Obama casts his early vote in home town Chicago. This is the first time in history this has happened through 44 Presidents
- Voting for the first time is like 'losing virginity' and Obama is in a video war over an official campaign from conservatives.
- Romney addresses the economy in a speech in Wisconsin.
Saturday 27th October:
- Election is neck and neck at the moment with almost even electoral votes.
Monday 29th October:
- Hurricane Sandy hits America on the East Coast leaving Obama with leading the country a week before election day, whilst Romney carries on Campaigning.
- Romney promises 'real change'
- Polls pretty much drawing even still.
Tuesday 30th October:
- October Surprise
- Hurricane Sandy takes 17 life's, and leaves 8m without power in NYC, NY.
- Obama visits devastated state of New Jersey
- Polls still about drawing, but many think Obama will win
Weds 31st October:
- East Coast devastated by storm, 48 dead
- Obama visits New Jersey, to help re-open businesses, and services.
Thurs 1st Nov:
- Barack Obama and Mitt Romney re-start election campaign formalities.
- Obama flew to swing state Wisconsin, and from there toured 3 states, including visiting a Las Vegas rally, also attended by actress Eva Longoria for campaign support.
- Obama reflects on "one nation" vision, which he used throughout his 2008 election campaign.
- Romney attacks Obama's business policies in the state of Virginia.
- Michael Bloomsberg, the Mayor of New York endorses the re-election of President Barack Obama, claiming, he's the better of the two candidates to fight climate change.
Fri day 2nd Nov:
- China and Japan support Obama
- Candidates await US jobs figures
- Obama campaigns in Ohio, saying "I'm not ready to give up the fight"
- Barack Obama releases new ad campaign in attempts to show a picture of a "nightmare vision of the first 100 days of Romney presidency
- Final appeals made to voters
Saturday 3rd Nov:
- Obama pays tribute to those who risked their lives in Hurricane Sandy
- Romney's push to win New Hampshire votes
Sunday 4th Nov:
- Will Ferrel backs Obama in new humorous advert



Sources: telegraph

FORWARD?

The election begins on November 6th, to see who will be the 45th President of the United States, The 2012 election is between Democratic candidate Barack Obama, who is currently in office, and Mitt Romney, the opposing Republican candidate. 

Both have very different long term plans, Obama is planning to restore the economy of America, and focus on improving and moving the country forward, whilst Romney's long term vision is to increase tax cuts and not allow women to decide on their own health care choices, amongst reverting to policies which caused the recession. 

'Forward' is their campaign slogan and is featured in posters, adverts and propaganda, his website, speeches and writing. It's all emphasis on the plan and pushing forward; not backwards. An ironic pull on Romney, and the democratic's view towards the republicans, as well as a summary of his policies, which can be seen below:


Source: barackobama

Source: barackobama


Barack Obama's plan in comparison to Romney's is much more positive and plausible with the public it seems, and as Obama has already killed Osama bin Laden, ended the war in Afghanistan, and promised to bring the troops home from Iraq. He's stabilised Wall Street, and caused more jobs in America than seen in recent years due to creating more jobs in the manufacturing industry. Personally I would vote for Obama not only for his policies, but for what he has done and this can be seen and summarised in the video below:



At this moment in time this is how the current election stands. 9 days to go, and the election is running neck and neck pretty much. 

Source: telegraph

Here you can see that the race is extremely close with Obama and the Democrats standing first with 201 electoral votes and Romney leading the Republicans with 191 electoral votes. 

How the election works:

Each state in America is given a number of electoral votes for the state, which are based on size. States such as California get around 50. However, 2 states use a 'win all take it all system'. Some states in America are mainly biased toward one party, therefore tend to vote for that party when elections come around. The Presidential candidates use their funding and donations on campaigning in these states particularly, to try and get the vote. This is called "swing states".

On the morning of November 6th 2012, votes will be cast in polling stations in the capital Washington DC, and the remaining states of America. Usually an idea is known around late evening as to who may have the lead. When the results have been confirmed and counted, they will announced and both parties will make a speech. The next inauguration day is January 21st 2013. 

Depending on who wins the election depends what will happen in the upcoming months. Romney would go through stages preparing him for his role. Whilst Barack Obama would continue in office and proceed to make the changes mentioned, and will be in office for a second term.  

Due to the neck-and-neck race at the moment, Obama has released a new ad campaign, which is a document stating his policies for the next term.

Source: dailymail

Obama's leaflet for the people of the United States. He had been told his campaign was cold, so this wad done to re boost the energy and positivity surrounding the elections, in his favour.









Thursday, 25 October 2012

ELECTION SUPPORT

"The singer pledged her support for Barack Obama in typically wacky fashion at a rally in Las Vegas last night. Katy, 28, took to the stage in a tight white rubber dress printed up like an election ballot slip. The words "PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES" were printed across her boobs - and she made a big black mark next to the names of Obama and his Vice President Joe Biden.

Obama will hope Katy's cat cry helps his chances of re-election when America goes to the polls on November 6. His campaign has taken a battering in recent weeks thanks to Republican rival Mitt Romney's strong showing in the televised election debates. It's not the first time the singer has lent her support to Obama's campaign."


 Source: thesun

Further election support has been spotted around the United States in more local methods, aside from celebrities and $6bn campaigns.


Classic patriotic colours - red, blue and white - have been used on this advertisement for a trailer to rent to politicians to help promote and publicise the campaign promises, showing how involved US Citizens can get. 

Source: blog.flickr

Street Art, presumably in a local area, persuading the viewer to vote for Obama, with the slogan "Our Democracy"

Wednesday, 24 October 2012

POLITICAL INFOGRAPHICS

Source: pinterest



Source: awesome.good.is


Source: behance

Source: flickrhivemind

Source: thumbnails


LOVE AND HATE


LOVE;

Source: dawngardner

Dawn Gardener produces beautifully intricate digital collages. Her specialism is graphic design and printing. This piece of work is taken from an exhibition in Essex in 2011.

I love the colours, and playful use of shape whilst collaging. The bright vintage prints she has used work really well with the muted tonal background she has chosen. The mix of Graphic Design and Illustration visually interesting, and the additional lines and details she adds to her work, from a simple image into a concept.

Here the lines linking the circles together give the illusion of cable cars on the mountains. I love her playfulness with design. It looks contemporary, sleek and well thought out. The variety of options available with digital collage is fun as well being a creative process.

The structure and layout is simple but aesthetically pleasing and some of her other work looks very editorial, which I also really love.  

Source: behance

Kaleid is a regularly published arts and culture magazine. It's title comes from the word 'Kaleidoscope' to reflect the every changing colours, trends and movements within Fashion, Culture and Arts, etc. This is reflected throughout the editorial branding and identity, and the composition, layout also.

It's design, composition and layout are very structured and minimal leaving a calm, relaxed, spacious tone to the magazine. The use of strong, bold geometric shapes which are used to build the type for the name and logo, is very powerful, showing the instant vibe and image for the magazine which is then reflected throughout. You can see on the spread below that the image spreading across the double spread layout, has been broken up and then re assembled to form a following, continuous image.

The colour and tone also changes and progresses with the images shown. I like the use of geometric angles and the alternate structure for a contents page opposed to a list. The sub sections are also categorised into - Arts, Film, Music and Culture. The variety of scale used for this layout is quite large, adding to the quirky, unusualness of the magazine. From looking at the design features you can see that the contents of the issue and creative topics stand out and become apart of the magazine opposed to just being a 'filler'.

HATE;


Source: weburbanist

These are a selection of fonts which are blacklisted as they say, against being used in a logo. They give no sense of brand identity, and seem appropriate for amateur school text books, not a corporate business. Fonts listed such as Comic Sans MS and Papyrus, are very overused and have no sense of meaning or power. When it comes to type design, they are all very basic and created for a general purpose, e.i. Microsoft Word. There's no creativity, structure or Graphic Design to this work and seems over full with condensed, illegible text.


 Source: carrieshare

This is one of the worst pieces of design I think I have come across. The Microsoft Publisher set shapes used along with a vast array of bright colours is too much with the pixelated illustration, and gradient background. This poster looks visually unappealing, and aesthetically annoying. The font used looks like Comic Sans which I don’t like for the juvenileness of it, and how the ‘word art’ has been used with the text, which to me seems pointless. The overall piece is badly set out and the fact it says “this looks awesome!” makes it even worse. You don’t know where to look first and there is no context or anything to it to give it a function or purpose.

PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN PROPAGANDA


2012 Presidential Election Campaign

"The Obama For America campaign released this amazing campaign poster, quoting Senator John Kerry’s amazing speech at this past week’s DNC convention. The image, rendered in the style of Soviet-era propaganda posters, was tweeted by Stephanie Cutter, the Obama 2012 Deputy Campaign manager, and picked up by several sites, like the right wing extremist Pat Pollard, along with Joe.My.God. and Buzzfeed’s Michael Hastings, whonotes:
Obama campaign officials believe that Romney is vulnerable on foreign policy after his difficult trip overseas in August and his failure to mention the war in Afghanistan in his speech in Tampa.
Those were the latest stumbles Chicago has seized upon. Earlier in the year, a Romney advisor also incorrectly referred to Russians as “Soviets,” a problematic term as the Soviet Union ceased to exist in 1991.
Here’s the Kerry quote, excerpted from his speech (full text and video — totally worth watching. This was the John Kerry who would have beat Bush):
“President Mitt Romney”—three hypothetical words that mystified and alienated our allies this summer. For Mitt Romney, an overseas trip is what you call it when you trip all over yourself overseas. It wasn’t a goodwill mission—it was a blooper reel.
But a Romney-Ryan foreign policy would be anything but funny. Every president of both parties for 60 years has worked for nuclear arms control—but not Mitt Romney. Republican secretaries of state from Kissinger to Baker, Powell to Rice, President Bush, and 71 United States senators all supported President Obama’s New Start treaty. But not Mitt Romney. He’s even blurted out the preposterous notion that Russia is our “number one geopolitical foe.” Folks: Sarah Palin said she could see Russia from Alaska; Mitt Romney talks like he’s only seen Russia by watching Rocky IV."
Source: wikipedia

This is the new banner for the Presidential Election for Barack Obama. It still features the colours of the American flag. It's minimal but illustrative and interesting.

Source: gerikoombe

The same logo is used here over a photo of Obama, with backdrops for his election in the background.

Source: obeygiant

This is Shepard Fairey's Poster for Presidential Election in 2008. You can see the colours are patriotic and the logo has been used on his jacket, like in the banner/photo for the 2012 election. "Progress", "Hope" or "Change" were used on various posters during the election. The posters were screen printed,  and has been re worked with various faces/icons since. It is a powerful poster, however it only took Fairey 24 hours from start to finish to design, develop and produce.


Kerry: GOP ‘Opposes Everything That Makes America Exceptional’



John Kerry ran against George Bush in the Presidential Election in 2004 and lost against him. However, last month he made a speech at the Democratic National Convention, as to who should win the election; Obama, and who shouldn't; Romney. It's a powerful 13 minute speech which clearly explains why Obama should remain in leadership. 

"We’ve all learned Mitt Romney doesn’t know much about foreign policy. But he has all these “neocon advisors” who know all the wrong things about foreign policy. He would rely on them—after all, he’s the great outsourcer.
Despite what you heard in Tampa, an exceptional country does care about the rise of the oceans and the future of the planet. That is a responsibility from the Scriptures—and that too is a responsibility of the leader of the free world. The only thing exceptional about today’s Republicans is that—almost without exception—they oppose everything that has made America exceptional in the first place. An exceptional nation demands the leadership of an exceptional president. And, my fellow Americans, that president is Barack Obama.
Just measure the disarray and disaster he inherited. A war of choice in Iraq had become a war without end, and a war of necessity in Afghanistan had become a war of neglect. Our alliances were shredded. Our moral authority was in tatters. America was isolated in the world. Our military was stretched to the breaking point. Iran was marching unchecked towards a nuclear weapon. And Osama bin Laden was still plotting.
It took President Obama to make America lead like America again. It took President Obama to restore our moral authority—and to ban torture. This president understands that our values do not limit our power—they magnify it. He showed that global leadership is a strategic imperative for America, not a favor we do for other countries.
And President Obama kept his promises. He promised to end the war in Iraq—and he has—and our heroes have come home. He promised to end the war in Afghanistan responsibly—and he is—and our heroes there are coming home. He promised to focus like a laser on al-Qaeda—and he has—our forces have eliminated more of its leadership in the last three years than in all the eight years that came before. And after more than ten years without justice for thousands of Americans murdered on 9/11, after Mitt Romney said it would be “naive” to go into Pakistan to pursue the terrorists, it took President Obama, against the advice of many, to give that order to finally rid this earth of Osama bin Laden. Ask Osama bin Laden if he is better off now than he was four years ago.
Barack Obama promised always to stand with Israel to tighten sanctions on Iran—and take nothing off the table."





FURTHER RESEARCH


The Metro, Weds 24th October

The debate for the Presidential Election continues again in today's newspaper, following on from yesterdays Osama bin Laden spread. Barack Obama, as biased as I personally am, is amazing, and should be President forever. He has achieved things no other President has before, and with his witt, humour, singing and dancing skills and general charm has won over not only the United States of America, but Great Britain, Europe and most probably the rest of the world! This article is a brief summary of the final debate between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney. Obama is powerful, dominant and serious and maintains the lead, saying that Romney has "wrong and reckless leadership that is all over the map". He portrayed Romney to be all over the place with foreign affairs, whilst Obama is structured and planned as usual.

Key Points Raised:
- Romney does not want to withdraw troops from Iraq
- Romney thinks that Russia is the USA's biggest threat, not Afghanistan
- "Every time you've been offered an opinion you have been wrong" - Obama on Romney.
- Obama won the debate in Florida, "in which the pair clashed over the Arab Spring, Iran, Israel and the trade with China'. 
- Romney lashed at Obama saying the feuds in Egypt and Libya had caused chaos, whilst Obama came back saying that it was the "biggest whopper of the campaign" and he dominated and brought power back to the country by killing Osama bin Laden, promising to withdraw the troops at war and "mobilising the world to support sanctions against Iran"

A valuable piece of visual research I have found is a documentary I watched last year just after the killing of Osama bin Laden was successful. The video is based on Barack Obama and how he went about the attack, with interviews from himself, his seals and other valuable members of his team at the White House. It shows the entire event from planning and carrying it out, to the announcement to the world and the aftermath which was faced. It is over an hour long but is highly interesting and valuable for this topic particularily. It can be found here.


GRAPHIC DESIGN - MEDIUM FOR THE MASSES, LECTURE NOTES


Graphic Design: A Medium for the Masses – James Beighton

 Areas for consideration with Graphic Design…
origins
relation to fine art
relation to advertising
a tool of capitalism
a political tool
postmodernism
social conscience

Giotto di Bondone – Art, Science and Symbolism
John Everett Millais – Pears Soap Advertisement, 1886. Does adding type to a piece of art, make it a piece of Graphic Design?

William Addison Dwiggins, 1922 – term Graphic Design came around.
Herbet Spencer
Max Bill and Josef Muller-Brockman – Whatever the information transmitted, it must, ethically and culturally, reflect its responsibility to society.
Richard Hollis - Graphic Design is the business of making or choosing marks and arranging them on a surface to convey an idea.
Paul Rand

‘Looking Closer’ – series of books on Graphic Design theory, statements, quotes etc.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – poster designer, artist. Cross overs with fine art, advertising and graphic design. Are they working together, or is it the simple placement of text over art?

A true sense of Graphic Design is starting to be developed:
Alphonse Mucha – before Christ
Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 1986 – Musical Reviews Posters
Koloman Moser, 1902 – Exhibition Posters – Illustration and composition turns more to standard graphic design with structured layout outs.
Pater Behrens, 1910
Saville Lumley, 1915
Alfred Leete, 1915 – Lord Kitchener posters
James Montgomery Flagg – Uncle Sam Posters
Julis Gipkins, 1917
Wassily Kandinsky – Composition VIII, 1923. Art crosses with Graphic Design, Abstraction
El Lissitzky, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge, 1919 – Poster, Geometric, Abstract Art translated into Graphic Design
F.H. Stingemore, 1931 – London Underground Map – simplified, basic, graphic representation opposed to realistic view.
Simon Patterson, 1992 – The Great Bar, lithograph on paper. Tube map turned into art with celebrity names and locations etc.
Oskar Schlemmer – Bauhaus Logo 1922
Herbert Bayer – German Poster for Kandinsky’s 60th Birthday exhibition
Piet Zwart – Dutch Phone Book, variety of text, colour, imagery.
Herbert Matter – Swiss Tourist Board posters, 1932-34. Have been re worked more recently for companies such as Swatch.
A.M. Cassandre – French Graphic Designer – Newspaper, Train, Travel posters etc. Minimalist with detail.
Tom Purvis, 1937 – LNER Poster
Ludwig Hohlwein – German Nazi Sports Posters, 1934, Degenerate Art Exhibition poster, 1936 – Hitler liked good art, realism, etc, not abstraction
Hans Schleger, 1940s Poster Designer
Jesp Renau – Industrial posters of the war,  Propoganda. Screen Printing. Interesting composition, simplistic text. 1936
Pere Catala I Pic – Let’s Squash Fascism, 1946.
V. Deni and N. Dolgorukuv  - Russian Dictatorship by Stalin
G. Klucis – USSR Posters.
Abram Games – catalogue for ‘exhibition of sciene’, 1951.
Paul Rand – Advertisiment for Jacqueline Cochram. Juxtaposition, layout. IBM Poster and Logo – 1970s
Saul Bass Posters, 1950s
F.H.K. Henrion – ‘Stop Nuclear Suicide’ Posters, 1960 – Nuclear Disarmament (Peace Sign)
Hipgnosis – Band Covers, over worked Art Work, self indulgence. 1960s/70s – hippy era.
Jamie Reid – Sex Pistols, Never Mind the Bollocks.. sleeve design, 1977. Unusual juxtaposition of layout, text and colour for this area, but design became as important as the music. Do it yourself aesthetic.
Peter Saville – Factory Records, Factory Club Night Posters.
Neville Brody – UK. The Face Magazine Covers, 1980s.
David Carson – USA. Editorial Graphic Design etc. ‘Don’t mistake legibility for communication’
Public Image Limited – Vinyl Sleeves/CD Packaging Design
Peter Blake – British Pop Art Designer, Beatles art work designer.
Chumbawamba – ‘Pictures of Starving Children Sell Records’ – GD Making a specific point about something sinister about music. Very to the point, shocking, focused.
Designers Republic – Sheffield based design house. Sleeve Designs in 1990s.
Mark Farrow (Farrow Design) – Packaging, CD Design, Conceptual Graphic Design/Packaging
The Coup – Party Music, 2001, withdrawn CD cover due to political and cultural issues relating to 9/11. The imagery is exactly what happened around a month later during the terrorist attacks in NYC on the Twin Towers.
Steven Heller – Evidence of designer concern is found in he form of well-meaning but woefully masturbatory poster exhibitions and portfolios organized on general humanistic themes such as peace, human rights and the environment” – 1991. Is it communicating to the masses?
Jonathan Barnbrook – Typeface design, ‘Olympukes’ symbols/icons.
Noami Klein - Author of 'No Logo', Very objective and opinionated. 
Oliviero Toscani - Benetton adverts 1990-92. Shock advertising comes into play more - nudity, shock, death, torture, health, religion, sex and homosexuality. Symbolism. Nothing related to Fashion, just to the Brand. 
Saatchi.
Judy Blame - Keep Britain Tidy T-Shirt, 1992. Graphics applied to fashion. 
Adbusters - cynical view on advertising/re working advertisements, for example, Nike Running Poster. Cleverness and self congratulatory. Will it change how we think and view things? 

Advertising and Consumerism.
Making money, corporate brands and companies. Status, social conscience and community are taken into account more with advertising.
Juxtaposition – text and imagery.
Negative Space.

Graphic Design is a young discipline.
Links between Graphic Design and different disciplines such as Fine Art and Advertising are becoming increasingly blurred.
Although born out of consumerist/capitalist interests, Graphic Design is arguably becoming increasingly concerned with social issues.